Ma’nene Penghormatan untuk Leluhur

Jasad yang sudah kering dibersihkan dengan kuas, bahkan dipeluk dan dicium.

Naskah dan Foto: Irmawati

Foto bersama kerabat dengan salah satu jasad, dalam prosesi ma’nene di Desa Bululangkan, Kecamatan Rindingallo, Kabupaten Toraja Utara, Sulawesi Selatan. (Tempo/Irmawati)

Masyarakat Toraja lekat dengan upacara kematian. Yang banyak dikenal pihak luar adalah rambu solo, yaitu upacara pemakaman, yang juga sering disebut pesta kematian. Selain itu, ada ma’nene, yakni ziarah kubur, pembersihan jenazah, hingga penggantian kian jenazah: Ma’nene tidak terlalu sering terdengar karena pelaksanaannya tergolong jarang. Paling cepat setahun sekali, tapi kebanyakan jangkanya lama 3-6 tahun sekali.

Di Kecamatan Baruppu, ma’nene dilakukan setiap tahun. Tapi, di Kecamatan Buntu Pepasan, upacara itu dilaksanakan tak tentu, kadang 4-6 tahun sekali. Sedangkan masyarakat Kecamatan Rinddingallo memilih tiga tahun sekali. Setiap lembang atau desa menentukan waktu pelaksanaannya masing-masing. Di Lembang Bululangkan, ma’nene digelar pada 27-30 Agustus lalu. Adapun Lembang Lempo Poton sudah membuka makam pada 21 Agustus.

Saya berkesempatan mengikuti tradisi warisan aluk todolo (adat orang dulu) di Lembang Bululangkan. Perjalanan dimulai dari Makassar-Toraja, yang berjarak 350 kilometer. Perjalanan ditempuh dalam waktu delapan jam dengan bus. Dari Rantepao, ibu kota Kabupaten Toraja Utara, saya masih harus melanjutkan perjalanan dengan ojek menuju Lembang Bululangkan, Kecamatan Rindingallo. Jaraknya sekitar 50 km. kondisi medannya menanjak, menurun, berkelok-kelok dan berlubang.

Sekitar pukul 10.00 Wita, saya tiba di Bululangkan. Saya langsung menyambangi rumah Kepala Lembang Bululangkan di Jalan Tanite I. rupanya, warga sudah mulai membuka makam sejak pagi, jadi Kepala Lembang Bululangkan, Elyas Ungke Toding Allo (Ungke), 43 tahun, langsung mengajak ke patane—rumah makam keluarga. Satu per satu peti beraneka usia itu dikeluarkan. Jasad para leluhur ini tak hanya menghuni patane, sebagian menempati liang—batu besar yang dilubangi menyerupai gua.

Peti jenazah tampak dijemur di bawah terik matahari setelah dikeluarkan dari patane atau rumah makam keluarga, di Desa Bululangkan, Kecamatan Rindingallo, Kabupaten Toraja Utara, Sulawesi Selatan. (Tempo/Irmawati)

Peti ada yang polos maupun berukir khas Toraja. Warna kain pembungkus jasad pun ada yang polos dan bermotif, tapi yang dominan warna merah polos. Dalam penggunaan kain, merah menempati status sosial tertinggi. Untuk bisa menggunakan kain merah polos, keluarga harus memotong minimal tujuh ekor kerbau saat upacara rambu solo.

Beberapa jasad dalam peti masih terbungkus rapi. Sebagian yang lain berdebu, bahkan ada yang berjamur karena lembap. Tapi ada juga jenazah yang hanya dibungkus tanpa peti. Seperti mumi Nek Esra Lumbaa, yang wafat pada 1998. Tiga tahun lalu, saat saya mengikuti prosesi ma’nene ini, para kerabatnya bersorak-sorai kegirangan karena jasadnya utuh. Meski begitu, massa tubuhnya sedikit mengecil. Tapi, karena patane lembap, jasad Esra berjamur dan berwarna hitam.

Berbeda dengan jasad Nek Banaa, yang menempati patane di sebelahnya. Debora Tumba, 58 tahun, tampak tersenyum gembira melihat jasad ibunya yang masih utuh. Kulitnya kering melekat dengan tulang. Rambut putih panjangnya tampak kusut. Bahkan kalung dan antingnya masih pada tempatnya. Melihat kondisi jasad orang tuanya yang berdebu, Debora mengambil kuas, lalu membersihkannya. Bahkan ia memeluk dan mencium jenazah yang sudah mongering tersebut.

Kesempatan ini juga diabadikan. Beberapa kerabat bergantian meminta difoto bersama mumi-mumi itu. Tua, muda, bahkan anak-anak tanpa rasa takut, bahkan bersorak-sorai, bisa bertemu dengan leluhurnya. Ungke mengatakan sorak-sorai itu terjadi karena keluarga gembira menemukan jasad yang masih utuh dan bisa dikenali. “Kondisi jasad yang utuh itu kebanggaan bagi keluarga yang ditinggalkan,” katanya. Suasana haru dan sedih menyusul karena keluarga mengenang para leluhur ketika hidup.

Tokoh adat Bululangkan, Yunus Lumbaa, 56 tahun, mengatakan perbedaan jasad-jasad ini terjadi karena cara pengawetan. Ada yang menggunakan ramuan tradisional, ada juga yang memakai formalin. Selain itu, sesuai dengan kepercayaan , kondisi jasad sangat dipengaruhi oleh perbuatannya semasa hidup. Nek Sayang—panggilan akrab Lumbaa—mengatakan sebelum 1980-an, pengawet mayat berupa ramuan campuran daun pinus dan tille, yakni sejenis tumbuhan bambu kecil yang berfungsi mengawetkan, dicampur minyak tanah dan sabun cap tangan agar bau mayat tidak busuk.

Ramuan diminumkan kepada jasad yang baru meninggal. Kalau bisa ditambah teh, ,meski sebelum 1970-an teh belum digunakan karena masih sulit diperoleh. Setelah 1980-an, warga mulai memakai formalin. “Jasad yang diawetkan menggunakan ramuan akan lebih awet dibanding yang pakai formalin,” paparnya.

Mumi Nek Banaa, yang meninggal 9 tahun lalu, di Desa Bululangkan, Kecamatan Rindingallo, Kabupaten Toraja Utara, Sulawesi Selatan. (Tempo/Irmawati)

Salah seorang warga Bululangkan, Yakop Padatuan, 48 tahun , mengatakan keluarganya masih mempertahankan ramuan tradisional. “Kami menggunakan pengawet teh,” ujarnya. Caranya, air teh diminumkan saat orang baru meninggal dan ampasnya dibalurkan pada tubuhnya. “Pemberian the ini hanya dilakukan sekali,” ia menambahkan. Hasilnya, tiga jasad kerabatnya, Sara Sombo Allo dan Welem Supan, yang sudah meninggal; 27 tahun, serta Bunga, yang meninggal pada 2002, hingga saat ini masih utuh.

Ma’nene di Bululangkan digelar secara berkala. Menurut Ungke, upacara penggantian kain jenazah merupakan wujud rasa hormat kepada leluhur atau semacam ziarah kubur. Kata ma’nene sendiri dapat diartikan menanam bunga. Prosesi ini digelar setelah pesta rambu solo dan sebelum rambu tu’ka atau pesta naik rumah Tongkonan—rumah asli Toraja dengan atap menyerupai perahu.

Setelah dibersihkan dan sedikit dijemur di bawah sinar matahari, bungkusan jasad-jasad itu kemudian dirapikan kembali. Kain-kain yang sudah kurang bagus tetap dipakai, ditambah beberapa helai kain baru. Setelah rapi, sebagian kemudian diikat. Yang tidak diikat langsung dimasukkan kembali ke peti.

Pembungkus jasad juga mengikuti perkembangan zaman. Nek Sayang mengatakan dulu, ketika kain masih sulit didapat, jasad dibungkus dengan karung bekas atau bahkan kulit kayu kering, sebelum dibungkus kain merah polos atau hitam polos. Tapi belakangan, tatkala kain mudah diperoleh, warga tidak lagi menggunakan karung atau kulit kayu. Mereka menggunakan kain pakaian bekas, sarung, atau seprei. Kain pembungkus jasadnya pun berwarna-warni, sesuai dengan status sosial penggunannya.

Kala jasad sudah terbungkus dan bau kemenyan serta kapur barus disingkirkan, patane ditutup. Berikutnya digelar acara penutupan, yang biasa disebut ne pare lapuk atau acara bersyukur bersama.

Dari Mappakande hingga Sisemba

Sisemba atau adu kaki massal yang dilakukan para kaum lelaki di lapangan terbuka, di Desa Bululangkan, Kecamatan Riddingallo, Toraja Utara, 30 Agustus 2012. (Tempo/Irmawati)

Prosesi diakhiri pada hari keempat di Rante, lapangan khusus dengan batu-batu menhir di sekelilingnya. Batu-batu ini konon symbol tokoh masyarakat kampong yang telah wafat. Sehari sebelumnya, keluarga mempersiapkan makanan untuk disantap bersama. Salah satu yang wajib saat mappakande adalah pa’piong, daging babi yang dimasukkan ke bambu lalu dibakar.

Proses pembuatan dilakukan sore hari secara gotong-royong. Bukan hanya orang tuan, anak-anak pun membantu mengangkat babi yang telah diikat dan memegang kakinya ketika badik menikam ternak itu tepat pada jantungnya. Setelah itu, mereka berlarian mencari kayu dan ranting bambu untuk membakar babi yang sudah disembelih tersebut. Anak-anak perempuan menyiapkan bumbu, di antaranya daun bawang, bawang putih, cabai, merica, garam, dan daun-daun setempat. Kurang dari 30 menit, bulu-bulu babi tadi bersih dilalap api.babi pun gosong. Setelah dikeluarkan isi perutnya dan dipotong kecil-kecil, potongna-potongan itu kemudian dimasukkan ke beberapa batang bambu berukuran setengah meter, lalu dibakar.

Keesokan harinya, pagi-pagi, warga terlihat berdatangan ke Rante. Mereka menggelar tikar dan menata makanan, termasuk tuak, yang wajib disuguhkan. Meski belum semua warga berkumpul, sejumlah lelaki mulai memotong kerbau.  Kali ini ada lima ekor kerbau yang disumbangkan untuk dibagikan kepada warga. Daging lantas dipotong-potong seukuran setengah sampai satu kilogram, lalu dilemparkan ke hadapan tiap warga.

Daging habis, yang tersisa tinggal kepala kerbau dan sepenggal paha di tengah lapangan. Dikumpulkan bersama kepala babi, yang oleh warga yang membuat pa’piong, kepala dan paha itu akan dilelang pada akhir acara di Rante. Totalnya 37 ekor. Harga lelangnya bervariasi, dari Rp 20 ribu hingga Rp 200 ribu. Setelah semuanya terjual, dana yang terkumpul disumbangkan ke gereja.

Sejumlah lelaki tampak memegang bambu–tempat minum khas untuk menikmati tuak di acara ne pare lapuk atau acara bersyukur bersama. (Tempo/Irmawati)

Puncak penutupan prosesi ma’nene adalah kebaktian, yang dipimpin pendeta di Bululangkan. Dilanjutkan pesta makan bersama. Sebelum meninggalkan Rante, warga berunding dan menyepakati ma’nene selanjutnya akan digelar pada Agustus 2015. Untuk menambah kemeriahan sebelum bubar, digelar sisemba, yakni adu kaki yang dilakukan di lapangan terbuka oleh para kaum pria, mulai anak-anak, dewasa, sampai orang tua. Mereka terbagi dua kubu. (By Irmawati, Culture, Majalah Travelounge edisi Oktober 2012)

————————————————————-

Ma’neneHonoring the Ancestors

Cleaning, hugging and kissing dead bodies.

Text & Photos by Irmawati

Suasana warga menunggu proses acara ne pare lapuk atau acara bersyukur bersama, di Rante atau lapangan yang terletak di Desa Bululangkan, Kecamatan Rinddingallo, Kabupaten Toraja Utara, Sulawesi Selatan, 30 Agustus 2012 lalu. (Tempo/Irmawati)

The Toraja society in Indonesia’s South Sulawesi, is attached to rituals for funeral. The most well-known is the Rambu Solo, a funeral ceremony, which is also orten dubbed as the party of death. In addition, there is ma’nene, a pilgrimage ti the grave, a rite to cleanse the body, as well as to replace of the cloths wrapping the body. Ma’nene is not so often heard since the ceremony is relatively rare. It’s is held about once year, but is is in fact performed in every three or six years.

In Baruppu District, ma’nene is performed every year. But, in the District of Pepasan Buntu, the tradition is held irregularly, sometimes in every four or even six years. Meanwhile, people in the Rindigallo District, opt to hold the ritual every three years. Each valley or village may determine the time by itself. In Lembang Bululangkan, the ma’nene was held on 27-30 August; while the Lembang Lempo Poton tomb was opened on August 21.

I had the opportunity to attend the Aluk Todolo, a tradition of the indigenous people, in Lembang Bululangkan. The journey began from Makassar to Toraja, which is about 350 kilometers. The trip took about eight hours by bus. From Rantepao, the capital of North Toraja Regency, I still had to continue the journey by taxi to Lembang Bululangkan, in Rindingallo District. The distance is about 50 km, with hilly, up and down and winding road.

I arrived at Bululangkan at around 10 a.m. Right away, I visited the house of the Lembang Bululangkan Chief on Tanite I Street. The people, apparently, had started to open the tomb since the morning, so the Chief, Elyas Ungke Toding Allo (Ungke), 43, immediately moved to patane, a family cemetery. The caskets, one by one, were taken out. The bodies of the ancestors were not only resided in the patane, but some of them occupied  in the liang, a big rock with a hollow like a cave.

The coffins were mostly of typical Toraja in plain or carved forms. The fabric wrapping the bodies were also plain or patterned, but the dominant color was red. In using the fabric, red means the highest social status.  To apply the plain res cloth, a family had to sacrifice minimum seven buffaloes during the rambu solo ceremony.

Some of the bodies in the caskets were still neatly wrapped. Others were dusty, even moldy with moisture. But there were also bodies only wrapped with no casket, like the body of Nek Esra Lumbaa, who died in 1998. Three years ago, when I followed the ma’nene procession, the relatives were cheering with delight as the body became smaller. Because patane was humid, Esra’s body became moldy and black.

Unlike the body of Nek Banaa, which occupied an adjacent patane, the body of Deborah Tumba’s mother was still intact. This made the 58-yeardaughter so happy. The skin was dry and attached to the bone. Her long white hair disheveled. Even her necklaces and earrings were still in place. Seeing the condition of the bodies of her parents in dust, Deborah took a brush and then cleaned it. She also hugged and kissed the dry body.

Debora Tumba, 58 tahun, membersihkan jasad ibunya Nek Banaa, yang meninggal 9 tahun lalu. (Tempo/Irmawati)

That moment became a photo session. Some relatives took turns asking photographed with the mummy. Old, young, even children had no scare but joy, to meet their ancestor. Ungke said cheers happened because the family found the body and was still intact and recognizable. “The condition of the intact body is then emotional moment and sadness as the family recalled the ancestors when they were alive.

A traditional leader in Bululangkan, Yunus Lumbaa, 56, said the difference in the bodies was due to the preservation method. Some people applied traditional ingredients, some used formalin. Furthermore, according to the local wisdom, the conditions of the bodies are influenced by the deeds and actions of the people when lived. Nek Sayang, the nickname of Lumbaa, said that before the 1980s, the preservatives were made of a mixture of pine and tille, a kind of small bamboo plant that serves to preserve, combined with kerosene and soap so that the body does not smell bad.

Tangan salah satu jasad dalam prosesi ma’nene di Desa Bululangkan. (Tempo/Irmawati)

Herbs were also given to a deceased body. Tea might also be added though it was not applied yet before the 1970s due to scarcity. After the 1980s, people started using formalin. “The bodies are preserved using potions will be more durable than those used formaldehyde,” he said.

One resident in Bululangkan, Yakop Padatuan, 48, said his family still applied traditional ingredients. “We use tea as preservative,” he said. He added that the tea was given to the people who just passed away, while the tea leaves were smeared on the body. “This is applied only once,” he said.as a result, the three bodies of his relatives, Sara Sombo Allo and Welem Supan, who died 27 years, and Flowers, who died in 2002, remained intact.

Ma’nene ini Bululangkan was held regularly. According Ungke, the ceremony fot the replacement of the cloth used to wrap the body is an action to honor the ancestors or a kind of pilgrimage to the grave. The term of ma’nene itself can be interpreted as planting flowers. The procession was held after the rambu solo and before the rambu tu’ka or the opening or the Tongkonan Toraja original houses with roofs that resembles a boat.

Once cleansed and slightly dried in the sun, the wrapped bodies were then put back in order. The old fabric were discarded and the good ones are kept, while some new cloths were added. After being put in order, some were then tied; the others were put back into the caskets.

The cloths are also updated along with the times. Nek Sayang said when the fabric was hard to find, the body was wrapped with a sack or even a dried bark, before being covered with plain black or red fabrics. But later, when the cloths are easier to obtain, people no longer use any sacks or  bark. They apply used clothing, gloves, or sheets. The fabric to wrap the body is now also colorful, in line with the social status of the families.

When the body was wrapped and the smell of incense and camphor were removed, patane was closed. The next tage was the closing ceremony, locally known as ne pare lapuk or saying grace together.

From Mapakande to Sisemba

Patane atau rumah makam keluarga, tempat menyemayamkan jenazah di Desa Bululangkan, Kecamatan Rindingallo, Kabupaten Toraja Utara, Sulawesi Selatan. (Tempo/Irmawati)

The procession ended on the fourth day in Rante, in a special field with menhir stones around it. These stones are believed as the symbol of public figures who have departed. A day earlier, the family prepares Akanan to eat together. A mandatory in mappakande is pa’piong, pork which is put into bamboo and toasted.

The process took place in late afternoon and was conducted hand-in-hand. Not only the adults, children also helped lifted the pig, tying and holding the legs while a knife was stabbed right in its heart. Later, they were running around looking for wood and bamboo twigs to burn the pig. The girls prepare herbs, including chives, garlic, chili, pepper, salt, and local leaves. Less than 30 minutes, the pig furs were cleaned in flames. The pig was cut into small piece that were then put into some bamboo poles measuring half a meter, and burned.

The next day, early in the morning, people flocked to go to Rante. They rolled out mats and set meals, including tuak (local wine), which must be presented. Although not all of the people gathered, some men began to cut buffeloes. This time there were five buffaloes donated for the community. The meat was then cut into pieces, each size is about a half to one kilogram, and then thrown into the front of every people.

After the meat was finished, the remaining things were only five buffalo heads and piece of thigh in the middle of the field. All were colleted along with the pig’s head, by the residents who made pa’piong. The heads and thighs wouls be auvtioned at the end of the event in Rante. There were totally 37 pieces. The prices vary, from IDR20,000 ti IDR200,000. Once everything was sold, the money raised was donated to the church.

The peak of the ma’nene procession was a worship led by a priest at Bululangkan. It was continued with party to have meal together. Before leaving Rante, the people discussed and agreed on the next ma’nene that to be held in August 2015. To increase the excitement before the event ended, there was sisemba. A kind of foot contest conducted in the open field by the men, participated by children, adults, and the elderly. The teams were divided into two groups. (By Irmawati, Culture, Majalah Travelounge edisi Oktober 2012)

2 Comments

  1. May 16, 2013 at 6:44 am

    jepretannya unik tp serem……

  2. a'an said,

    October 10, 2014 at 1:40 am

    Udah hancur keles dineraka sana..


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